Ancient Olympics-tsumori chisato

Dominic Patric de Neuville The Ancient Olympic Games were a series of .petitions held between representatives of several city-states and kingdoms from Ancient Greece, which featured mainly athletic but also .bat and chariot racing events. During the Olympic games all struggles against the participating city-states were postponed until the games were finished.[3] The origin of these Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend.[4] One of the most popular myths identifies Heracles and his father Zeus as the progenitors of the Games.[5][6][7] According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years.[8] A legend persists that after Heracles .pleted his twelve labors, he built the Olympic stadium as an honor to Zeus. Following its .pletion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which later became a unit of distance. Another myth associates the first Games with the ancient Greek concept of Olympic truce.[9] The most widely accepted date for the inception of the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC; this is based on inscriptions, found at Olympia, of the winners of a footrace held every four years starting in 776 BC.[10] The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian events.[11][12] Tradition has it that Coroebus, a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion.[13] The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honoring both Zeus (whose famous statue by Phidias stood in his temple at Olympia) and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia. Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis.[14] The winners of the events were admired and immortalized in poems and statues.[15] The Games were held every four years, and this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, and the Isthmian Games.[16] The Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but then gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Greece. There is no consensus on when the Games officially ended, the most .mon-held date is 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I declared that all pagan cults and practices be eliminated.[17] Another date cited is 426 AD, when his successor Theodosius II ordered the destruction of all Greek temples.[18] After the demise of the Olympics, they were not held again until the late 19th century. Modern Games Forerunners Further information: Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games and Zappas Olympics The first significant attempt to emulate the ancient Olympic Games was the L’Olympiade de la Rpublique, a national Olympic festival held annually from 1796 to 1798 in Revolutionary France.[19] The .petition included several disciplines from the ancient Greek Olympics. The 1796 Games also marked the introduction of the metric system into sport.[19] Between 1862 and 1867, Liverpool held an annual Grand Olympic Festival. Devised by John Hulley and Charles Melly, these games were the first to be wholly amateur in nature and international in outlook, although only ‘gentlemen amateurs’ could .pete.[22][23] The programme of the first modern Olympiad in Athens in 1896 was almost identical to that of the Liverpool Olympics.[24] In 1865 Hulley, Dr. Brookes and E.G. Ravenstein founded the National Olympian Association in Liverpool, a forerunner of the British Olympic Association. Its articles of foundation provided the framework for the International Olympic Charter.[25] In 1866, a national Olympic Games in Great Britain was organized at London’s Crystal Palace.[26] Revival Greek interest in reviving the Olympic Games began with the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821. It was first proposed by poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos in his poem "Dialogue of the Dead", published in 1833.[21]:1 Evangelis Zappas, a wealthy Greek-Romanian philanthropist, first wrote to King Otto of Greece, in 1856, offering to fund a permanent revival of the Olympic Games.[21]:14 Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games in 1859, which was held in an Athens city square. Athletes participated from Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Zappas funded the restoration of the ancient Panathenaic stadium so that it could host all future Olympic Games. The Panathinaiko Stadium hosted Olympics in 1870 and 1875. Thirty thousand spectators attended that Games in 1870 though no official attendance records are available for the 1875 Games.[21]:44 In 1890, after attending the Olympian Games of the Wenlock Olympian Society, Baron Pierre de Coubertin was inspired to found the International Olympic .mittee (IOC).[27] Coubertin built on the ideas and work of Brookes and Zappas with the aim of establishing internationally rotating Olympic Games that would occur every four years.[27] He presented these ideas during the first Olympic Congress of the newly created International Olympic .mittee. This meeting was held from June 16 to June 23, 1894, at the Sorbonne University in Paris. On the last day of the Congress, it was decided that the first Olympic Games, to .e under the auspices of the IOC, would take place in Athens in 1896.[28] The IOC elected the Greek writer Demetrius Vikelas as its first president.[21]:100105 1896 Games The first Games held under the auspices of the IOC was hosted in the Panathenaic stadium in Athens in 1896. These Games brought together 14 nations and 241 athletes who .peted in 43 events.[29] Zappas and his cousin Konstantinos Zappas had left the Greek government a trust to fund future Olympic Games. This trust was used to help finance the 1896 Games.[21]:117[30][31] George Averoff contributed generously for the refurbishment of the stadium in preparation for the Games.[21]:128 The Greek government also provided funding, which was expected to be recouped through the sale of tickets to the Games and from the sale of the first Olympic .memorative stamp set. The Greek officials and public were enthusiastic about the experience of hosting these Games. This feeling was shared by many of the athletes, who even demanded that Athens be the host of the Olympic Games on a permanent basis. The IOC did not approve this request. The .mittee planned that the modern Olympics would rotate internationally. As such they decided to hold the second Games in Paris. Changes and adaptations After the success of the 1896 Games, the Olympics entered a period of stagnation that threatened their survival. The Olympic Games held at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and the World’s Fair at St. Louis in 1904 were side-shows. The Games at Paris did not have a stadium; however, this was the first time women took part in the games. The St. Louis Games hosted 650 athletes, but 580 were from the United States. The homogeneous nature of these celebrations was a low point for the Olympic Movement.[33] The Games rebounded when the 1906 Intercalated Games (so-called because they were the second Games held within the third Olympiad) were held in Athens. These Games are not officially recognized by the IOC and no Intercalated Games have been held since. These Games, which were hosted at the Panathenaic stadium in Athens, attracted a broad international field of participants, and generated great public interest. This marked the beginning of a rise in both the popularity and the size of the Olympics.[34] About the Author: 相关的主题文章: